Milling & Baking News - April 6, 2021 - 22

years
SOSLAND PUBLISHING

US HFCS and refined sugar per capita deliveries
in lbs, dry weight basis
120
100
80
60
40
20
0

1967 1970 1973 1976 1979 1982 1985 1988 1991 1994 1997 2000 2003 2006 2009 2012 2015 2018
Refined sugar
HFCS

Source: USDA, Economic Research Service

the unknown. Sucrose had been 'the'
sweetener for hundreds of years. "
There were some early challenges
to HFCS that never gained traction, he
pointed out, but those challenges " returned with a vengeance " in the early
2000s.
The attacks on HFCS especially
gained attention in 2004 when George
A. Bray, MD, a professor of medicine at
the Pennington Biomedical Research
Center in Baton Rouge, La., and Barry
M. Popkin, PhD, a nutrition professor
at the University of North Carolina at
Chapel Hill, published a hypothesis
that HFCS was a direct causative factor in obesity, based on the relation
between the growth of HFCS consumption and increased obesity rates
between 1960 and 2000.
" Even the two scientists who first
propagated the idea of a unique link
between high-fructose corn syrup and
America's soaring obesity rates have
gently backed off from their initial
theories, " The New York Times said in a
significant article titled " A Sweetener
With a Bad Rap " in 2006.
" It was a theory meant to spur science, but it's quite possible that it may
be found out not to be true, " Dr. Popkin was quoted as saying in The Times'
story.
The New York Times also noted that Michael F. Jacobson, director of the Center
for Science in the Public Interest, and
a common critic of the food industry,
" never supported the notion that highfructose corn syrup was a unique contributor to obesity, " although he said
HFCS was artificial because it was created by a change in molecular structure
rather than occurring naturally.
But the " cat was out of the bag "
with the Bray/Popkin paper, and
what followed was a " feeding frenzy "
22 / April 6, 2021

of activists, journalists and even parts
of the sugar industry portraying the
evils of HFCS. Some detractors went
beyond blaming corn refiners to blame
" cheap corn " that they claimed was
heavily subsidized by the US government. Numerous studies would
follow discounting the initial theory
from Dr. Bray and Dr. Popkin, but
none reversed the negative perception
of HFCS.
Despite the " warning " signs against
HFCS in the 1980s, " the industry had
to scramble to assemble good and factual information, " said Mr. Brenner,
who was a consultant for the CRA
during the 2000s.
Further complicating matters for
HFCS was a slowdown in use after
years of sustained rapid growth.
" With or without the attacks, HFCS
use was going to hit a peak, " Mr.
Brenner said. " HFCS has been a mature product since 2000. "
After peaking at 63.8 lbs per capita in
1999, deliveries of HFCS tumbled nearly 25% to 48.4 lbs by 2010. Sugar deliveries, meanwhile, dipped to a 17-year
low of 61 lbs in 2003 and then climbed
to 66 lbs in 2010. Amid the public's
growing negative perception of HFCS,
the food processing industry began to
reformulate HFCS out of foods (and
thus off labels) and switch back to sugar or some other " natural " sweetener.
The story of HFCS may not be told
without the role of the Corn Refiners
Association (CRA), the Washington
trade group representing and defending the industry. Leading the CRA during the most challenging years was Audrae Erickson, who was president from
2002 until 2012. She led efforts on trade
and rebuffed numerous challenges accusing HFCS of being the cause of rising obesity rates in America.

Milling & Baking News		

The CRA has six member companies: Archer Daniels Midland Co., Cargill, Grain Processing Corp., Ingredion
Inc., Roquette America, Inc., and Tate
& Lyle Americas. All of those make
HFCS except Grain Processing, which
focuses on starch and maltodextrins.
They all also produce fuel ethanol and
numerous other products.
Despite its numerous challenges and
victories for the industry, the CRA also
had a couple missteps along the way.
One was an attempt to change the
name from high-fructose corn syrup
to corn sugar at the height of the negative press era. The FDA rejected that
attempt.
Also controversial was a print and
television advertising campaign by
the CRA in 2008 extolling the benefits
of HFCS, or at least noting its similarities to sugar. The effect of the campaign on consumers was questionable
at a cost some estimated between $20
million and $30 million.
A 2012 meta-analysis published in
the Annals of Internal Medicine noted
that weight gain resulted when HFCS
was consumed in addition to existing
daily caloric intake but not when it
was consumed in place of other sugars. Thus, the key was total calories
consumed, not necessarily the type
of calories, and Americans were consuming lots more calories during the
final decades of the 20th century and
into the 2000s (while also becoming
more sedentary), especially caloricsweetened beverages, which to some,
pointed the finger back at HFCS.
Whether from work by the CRA or
the numerous studies countering the
initial anti-HFCS research, " the effort
just ran out of steam, " in the late 2000s,
Mr. Brenner said. " People lost interest. "
Then there were lawsuits and counter lawsuits between the corn sweetener and sugar industries (initiated by
sugar) that started around 2011, part of
which focused on accusations of false
advertising in the 2008 HFCS public
relations campaign. The sugar industry sought $1.5 billion in damages.
The CRA countered with accusations
that the sugar industry was running a
" spin-and-smear conspiracy " against
the HFCS industry, seeking $530 million in damages. Those cases finally
were settled out of court in 2015.
" The sweetener industry realized that
'inter-sweetener warfare' wasn't doing
anyone any good, " Mr. Brenner said.
Exports to Mexico surge with NAFTA
Producers of HFCS got a reprieve
of sorts with the North American Free
bakingbusiness.com / world-grain.com


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Milling & Baking News - April 6, 2021

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